Monitoring refers to the continuous process of assessing progress of a scheme/project towards defined objectives and goals. It involves identification of relevant indicators and their data sources, periodic data collection and real-time processing of information for reviewing the implementation of a scheme/project. This information may also form the basis for future evaluations. Effective monitoring is the key to ensuring transparency and accountability in seamless implementation and program delivery to the intended beneficiaries.
Monitoring and Evaluation are both key processes in policy making by linking interventions with their outcomes/impacts and ensuring the objectives are achieved as planned. Both these processes focus on improving performance by identifying outputs, outcomes and impact, setting goals for each of them and measuring the achievements against the defined goals. This information can provide insights into whether a scheme/project is on track in the right direction, how the various elements of a scheme/project are working, and which of these need to be re-considered or modified; thereby, allowing for mid-course correction during scheme implementation and future improvements. More importantly, monitoring and evaluation are critical to ensure maximum effectiveness of public investments.
Laid before the Parliament with the Union Budget for 2019-20, the Output-Outcome Framework represents an important reform towards outcome-based monitoring. It provides a framework of indicators for monitoring Central Sector (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), with outlays covering approximately 40% of the Central Government's expenditure budget. This is a paradigm shift from measuring simply physical and financial progress, to a governance model based on outcomes. DMEO has been working with Ministries and Departments to develop this framework since 2017.
The Output-Outcome Framework 2019-20 endeavors to provide measurable indicators for achievement of scheme objectives, or the 'Outcomes'. Actively tracking progress against defined targets provides two key benefits for governance: improving (i) the development impact and (ii) the public accountability of every rupee spent by the Government of India. Thus, the Output-Outcome Framework 2019-20 lays the foundation of the journey towards a stronger portfolio of Government of India's development programmes. It enables performance-based budgetary allocations and can also be used to drive budgetary and administrative convergence among existing schemes/ programmes.
With the cooperation of line ministries and implementing actors, a robust monitoring mechanism based on this Framework can revolutionize the governance and implementation of all the CS/CSS schemes of the Government of India.
For all schemes above Rs. 500 crore in allocation for 2020-21, the document can be accessed here:
For remaining schemes, the documents can be accessed here:
For Ministry and Department wise, documents can be accessed here:
- Sector Reviews
For 13 infrastructure sectors and 4 social sectors namely Health, Roads, Ports, Education, Power, Irrigation, Coal, Civil Aviation, Mining, Digital, New and Renewable Energy, Railways, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Pradhadhan Mantri Awas Yojana(PMAY, Rural), PMAY(Urban), National Rural Health Mission and Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, DMEO prepares monitoring reviews for some of the highest decision-makers in the country. These reviews transcend bureaucratic silos to present a cross-ministerial view of the performance of the sectors. By identifying bottlenecks and suggesting interventions, immediate actions are often initiated from the highest levels of the government, improving overall development outcomes. In this endeavor, DMEO has developed an interactive dashboard to facilitate monitoring and analysis. The dashboard has been made accessible to Ministries or Departments, enabling them to upload progress data and action taken on tasks from the previous review. The minutes from each review help initiate action, while regular Action Taken Reports periodically sent to high-level decision-makers help follow up.
- Quick Assessments
Quick Assessment of Schemes (QAS) is an appraisal conducted by DMEO, over a short duration (ideally between 2-3 months), to provide timely policy inputs to a variety of users. It may be carried out for an existing scheme, or for a scheme that is about to be launched.
For existing schemes, QAS involves assessing the scheme design, implementation mechanisms, and scope for potential convergences through field visits. Based on the observations and key Informant Interviews (KII) with stakeholders, including government functionaries and beneficiaries, a set of findings and recommendations are developed for necessary action. In the case of new schemes, a QAS may be employed to assess on-ground needs, existing systems, and potential scheme design frameworks and scope for convergence.
QAS is carried out with the purpose to provide inputs to the program teams, highlighting challenges in implementation, or potential bottlenecks and scope of convergence especially in case of new schemes.
- Other Activities and Tools
DMEO undertakes data analysis and provides recommendations based on monitoring data to a variety of stakeholders. It provides comments to Ministries and Departments at the scheme design and appraisal stage, outlining key output and outcome indicators to be monitored. It is also strengthening its capacity to set standards in the country, including a nation-wide monitoring and evaluation policy, monitoring maturity assessment of ministries etc.